Hersentumoren

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Hoewel kanker zeer zeldzaam is bij kinderen, zijn hersentumoren de meest voorkomende na leukemie. De pediatrische hersentumoren verschillen van die bij volwassenen door ligging en type. Ook de nabehandeling verschilt vanwege de nog ontwikkelende hersenen bij kinderen en de specifieke kenmerken van de tumoren. Een interdisciplinaire aanpak tussen neurochirurgen, kinderneurologen en neuro-oncologen in een gespecialiseerd ziekenhuis is noodzaklijk.

De symptomen van een hersentumor kunnen acuut optreden onder vorm van een epileptische aanval, of met een neurologisch deficiet. Soms kunnen hierdoor de kinderen scheel zien of hebben ze een scheefstand van het hoofd. Vaak veroorzaakt een tumor langzamer optredende symptomen zoals hoofdpijn, braken, toegenomen vermoeidheid, concentratiemoeilijkheden of gedragsveranderingen. Een verlies van het gezichtsvermogen kan geleidelijk plaatsvinden zonder opgemerkt te worden door het kind. Bij kinderen jonger dan 2 jaar, zal een meestal sprake zijn van een algemene achteruitgang. Een MRI is het eerstelijnsonderzoek om de diagnose te bevestigen en is de basis voor de verdere planning van de behandeling.
In veel gevallen wordt eerst een medische behandeling met corticoiden gestart om de zwelling van de hersenen te verminderen en wordt vervolgens een operatie voorzien om de tumor te verwijderen of tenminste een biopsie te bekomen voor de diagnose. Afhankelijk van de definitieve diagnose en de leeftijd van het kind, moet soms een secundaire behandeling met radiotherapie en chemotherapie gestart worden.
De meest voorkomende tumoren bij jonge kinderen zijn het pilocytair astrocytoom en het medulloblastoom van het cerebellum, het glioom (van de optische zenuw, de hersenen, hersenstam en het ruggenmerg), het ependymoom zowel in de hersenen als in het ruggenmerg, kiemceltumoren en craniofaryngioom.

De diagnose van een hersentumor veroorzaakt een enorme psychische belasting voor de hele familie.  De angst van het kind, alsook van de ouders, broers en zussen moet worden opgevangen binnen een psycho-sociale context. De ziekenhuisopname, de operatie, chemotherapie en radiotherapie veroorzaken niet alleen een breuk in de dagelijkse routine, maar betekenen ook een permanente mentale belasting. De psychologische en sociale zorgdienst van ons kinderziekenhuis voldoet aan de individuele behoeften van de families.

[:en]

Although cancer is very rare in children, braintumors are the most frequent after leucemia.

The pediatric braintumors differ from those in adults in respect of localisation and pathology. Also the post-operative treatment is different due to the still developing brain in children and the specific characteristics of the tumors. Best care is given in high care children hospitals where interdisciplinarity of specialized neurosurgeons, neuropediatricians and neurooncologists is ensured.

 

Symptoms of a brain tumor may occur acute in the form of an epilectic seizure, or neurological deficits, i.e. paralysis – often of the eye movement. Often, the tumor causes gradual symptoms, such as headache, vomiting, increased fatigue, lack of concentration, or also behaviour changes. A loss of vision may occur progressively without being noticed by the child. In infants under 2 years, a general clinical deterioration occurs in most cases.

MRI scan is the first line examination to confirm the diagnosis and is the foundation for further treatment planning.

In many cases, a medical treatment with cortisone, to reduce the swelling of the brain, is started first and operation will be planned in order to remove the tumor or at least get a biopsy for histological diagnosis. All modern techniques are available in our institution. Depending on the definitive diagnosis and the age of the child, secondary treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will be discussed.

Most common tumors in infancy are pilocytic astrocytoma or medulloblastoma of the cerebellum, the glioma of the optic nerve, the brain, brainstem and spinal cord, the ependymoma as well in the brain as in the spinal cord, germ cell tumours, craniopharyngioma.

The diagnosis of a brain tumor causes an immense psychological burden for the whole family. The fears of the little patients as well as of the parents and the siblings have to be taken care of within a psycho-social context. The hospitalisation, the surgery, the chemotherapy, and the radiotherapy cause not only a break down in daily routine, but also mean a permanent mental strain. The psychological and social care service of our childrens hospital conforms to the individual needs of the respective families.

[:fr]

Although cancer is very rare in children, braintumors are the most frequent after leucemia.

The pediatric braintumors differ from those in adults in respect of localisation and pathology. Also the post-operative treatment is different due to the still developing brain in children and the specific characteristics of the tumors. Best care is given in high care children hospitals where interdisciplinarity of specialized neurosurgeons, neuropediatricians and neurooncologists is ensured.

 

Symptoms of a brain tumor may occur acute in the form of an epilectic seizure, or neurological deficits, i.e. paralysis – often of the eye movement. Often, the tumor causes gradual symptoms, such as headache, vomiting, increased fatigue, lack of concentration, or also behaviour changes. A loss of vision may occur progressively without being noticed by the child. In infants under 2 years, a general clinical deterioration occurs in most cases.

MRI scan is the first line examination to confirm the diagnosis and is the foundation for further treatment planning.

In many cases, a medical treatment with cortisone, to reduce the swelling of the brain, is started first and operation will be planned in order to remove the tumor or at least get a biopsy for histological diagnosis. All modern techniques are available in our institution. Depending on the definitive diagnosis and the age of the child, secondary treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will be discussed.

Most common tumors in infancy are pilocytic astrocytoma or medulloblastoma of the cerebellum, the glioma of the optic nerve, the brain, brainstem and spinal cord, the ependymoma as well in the brain as in the spinal cord, germ cell tumours, craniopharyngioma.

The diagnosis of a brain tumor causes an immense psychological burden for the whole family. The fears of the little patients as well as of the parents and the siblings have to be taken care of within a psycho-social context. The hospitalisation, the surgery, the chemotherapy, and the radiotherapy cause not only a break down in daily routine, but also mean a permanent mental strain. The psychological and social care service of our childrens hospital conforms to the individual needs of the respective families.

[:de]

Although cancer is very rare in children, braintumors are the most frequent after leucemia.

The pediatric braintumors differ from those in adults in respect of localisation and pathology. Also the post-operative treatment is different due to the still developing brain in children and the specific characteristics of the tumors. Best care is given in high care children hospitals where interdisciplinarity of specialized neurosurgeons, neuropediatricians and neurooncologists is ensured.

 

Symptoms of a brain tumor may occur acute in the form of an epilectic seizure, or neurological deficits, i.e. paralysis – often of the eye movement. Often, the tumor causes gradual symptoms, such as headache, vomiting, increased fatigue, lack of concentration, or also behaviour changes. A loss of vision may occur progressively without being noticed by the child. In infants under 2 years, a general clinical deterioration occurs in most cases.

MRI scan is the first line examination to confirm the diagnosis and is the foundation for further treatment planning.

In many cases, a medical treatment with cortisone, to reduce the swelling of the brain, is started first and operation will be planned in order to remove the tumor or at least get a biopsy for histological diagnosis. All modern techniques are available in our institution. Depending on the definitive diagnosis and the age of the child, secondary treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will be discussed.

Most common tumors in infancy are pilocytic astrocytoma or medulloblastoma of the cerebellum, the glioma of the optic nerve, the brain, brainstem and spinal cord, the ependymoma as well in the brain as in the spinal cord, germ cell tumours, craniopharyngioma.

The diagnosis of a brain tumor causes an immense psychological burden for the whole family. The fears of the little patients as well as of the parents and the siblings have to be taken care of within a psycho-social context. The hospitalisation, the surgery, the chemotherapy, and the radiotherapy cause not only a break down in daily routine, but also mean a permanent mental strain. The psychological and social care service of our childrens hospital conforms to the individual needs of the respective families.

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